Structure of the eye and ear

Blood contains nutrients and oxygen providing energy that allows the cells of the body to perform work. Part of the immune system that helps the body fight-off disease. Works with the cardiovascular system to return fluids from the blood vessels. The fur helps insulate against heat loss.

Structure of the eye and ear

Play media Animation of the biomineralization of cod otoliths The composition of fish otoliths is also proving useful to fisheries scientists. The calcium carbonate that the otolith is composed of is primarily derived from the water.

As the otolith grows, new calcium carbonate crystals form. As with any crystal structure, lattice vacancies will exist during crystal formation allowing trace elements from the water to bind with the otolith.

Studying the trace elemental composition or isotopic signatures of trace elements within a fish otolith gives insight to the water bodies fish have previously occupied. A common tool used to measure trace elements in an otolith is a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

This tool can measure a variety of trace elements simultaneously. A secondary ion mass spectrometer can also be used. This instrument can allow for greater chemical resolution but can only measure one trace element at a time.

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The hope of this research is to provide scientists with valuable information on where fish have traveled. Combined with otolith annuli, scientists can add how old fish were when they traveled through different water bodies. All this information can be used to determine fish life cycles so that fisheries scientists can make better informed decisions about fish stocks.

Growth rate and age[ edit ] A pair of sagittae from a Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus.

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Removing an otolith from a red snapper to determine its age See also: The sagittae are largest, found just behind the eyes and approximately level with them vertically. The lapilli and asterisci smallest of the three are located within the semicircular canals. The sagittae are normally composed of aragonite although vaterite abnormalities can occur [13]as are the lapilli, while the asterisci are normally composed of vaterite.

The shapes and proportional sizes of the otoliths vary with fish species. In general, fish from highly structured habitats such as reefs or rocky bottoms e.

Flying fish have unusually large otoliths, possibly due to their need for balance when launching themselves out of the water to "fly" in the air.

Structure of the eye and ear

Often, the fish species can be identified from distinct morphological characteristics of an isolated otolith. Fish otoliths accrete layers of calcium carbonate and gelatinous matrix throughout their lives.

The accretion rate varies with growth of the fish — often less growth in winter and more in summer — which results in the appearance of rings that resemble tree rings.The cornea serves as a protective covering for the front of the eye and also helps focus light on the retina at the back of the eye.

After passing through the cornea, light travels through the pupil (the black dot in the middle of the eye). Read this article to learn about Structure and Working of Human Ear.

Ears are the organs of hearing (phonoreceptors) in vertebrates but in higher vertebrates including man, it serves dual functions of hearing and equilibrium (stato-acoustic organ). Predsol Drops for Eye and Ear is indicated for short term treatment of steroid responsive inflammatory conditions of the eye after clinical exclusion of bacterial, viral and fungal infections and Non-infected inflammatory conditions of the ear.

The outer ear consists of an outer, funnel-like structure called the auricle(or pinna) and an S-shaped tube, the external auditory meatus.

Label Parts of the Human Ear Extrinsic eye muscles aim the eyes for following moving objects and for convergence. Lacrimal apparatus Figure 8.

The shapes of the outer ear (the auricle) and the external auditory canal can help amplify and direct the sound. Nov 16,  · Structure Of The Eye. The most important structures are the lens and it’s retina The wall of the eyeball consists of 3 layers *The outermost sclera *The middle choroid *The innermost retina.

The Sclera is a white tough layer of connective tissue which protects and maintains the shape of the eyeball. It bulges out in front to form. An otolith (Greek: ὠτο-, ōto-ear + λῐ́θος, líthos, a stone), also called statoconium or otoconium or statolith, is a calcium carbonate structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular system of vertebrates.

The saccule and utricle, in turn, together make the otolith organs are what allows an organism, including humans, to perceive.

human ear | Structure, Function, & Parts |