After that date, Portugese ships would frequently return to Europe laden with spices and commodities that would fetch fabulous prices. Other European powers looked enviously at this stream of exotica coming from the Orient. Portugal managed to hold on to its preeminent position largely in part to the Treaty of Tordesillas of
In the actual contest, Tsarist Russia resented British expeditions into the Steppe Khanates while Victorian Britain feared that Russian entreaties to Persia and Afghanistan would jeopardize India's security. So the two imperial powers wove a complex tale of diplomatic intrigue, colonial conquest and proxy wars that spanned 50 years.
The Great Game is a card driven game CDGwhere players alternate moving officers historical personalities and troops across a point-to-point map of Central Asia in decade turns.
Imperial officers leading local troops performed as scouts, spies, diplomats and generals through a series of intrigues, negotiations and proxy wars that spanned 50 years. This "Great Game" has since become legend. Meanwhile, another Russian officer, Vitkevich, rode for Kabul with a bounty of gifts to charm Dost Mohamed.
This military-diplomatic pincer movement to capture Afghanistan threatened to give Russia control of the gates to India, the Khyber and Bolan Passes. Faced with defeat, Persia retreated ending the immediate threat to Afghanistan.
However, because Kabul had received Vitkevich with full honors over British protests Calcutta saw no choice but "regime change" to protect the passes. InBritain's 15,strong Army of the Indus marched north through the Khyber Pass to quickly defeat the less disciplined Afghan army.
At the same time, Colonel Stoddart made his way further north on a diplomatic Colonial india to assure Bokhara that British troops would not invade that country. Disaster struck both imperial powers. Perovsky's men and camels first froze and then starved on the Kazakh Steppe.
As the column marched, Jezail-armed sharpshooters mercilessly snipped at the 4, troops and 12, civilians ultimately finishing the job in a last stand at Gandamak.
Awed by this defeat, the Emir of Bokhara hauled Stoddart from the dungeon and chopped off his head! For the next 20 years, the imperial powers played the Great Game with caution while consolidating their gains and resolving other conflicts.
But the two did clash in the Crimean War. Persia took another swing at Herat. Imam Shamyl rose up against the Russians in the Caucuses while Indian sepoys rebelled against their British masters.
The interlude came to an end when restless Russian officers sought rapid promotion. In Maya wily Russian General named Cherniaev didn't bother to ask his superiors for the permission he knew they would refuse before setting out with 1, men and 12 guns to capture the rich city of Tashkent garrisoned by 30, soldiers of Khokand.
Under cover of darkness, Cherniaev concentrated his smaller force at a single point along Tashkent's 16 miles of outer wall to achieve a local advantage over the strung out defenders and win a resounding victory. Three years later, Kaufman lost only three men conquering Samarkand and then crushed the emir's army in a field battle that subordinated Bukhara to Russia.
Britain watched with trepidation, lodged protests and contemplated making Afghanistan a protectorate to secure the passes, but ultimately decided on "masterful inactivity.
Afghanistan again made the mistake of accepting a Russian diplomatic mission while refusing one from Britain. So 35, British-controlled troops marched north and won quick victories. The Afghans were surprised when Kaufman declined their request for 30, Russian reinforcements. Defeated and friendless, the Afghans submitted to a British residency in Kabul.
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|Cookies on the BBC website||Vasco da Gama lands at Calicut20 May The closing of the traditional trade routes in western Asia by the Ottoman Empireand rivalry with the Italian states, sent Portugal in search of an alternate sea route to India.|
Imperial setbacks soon followed. In a bloody replay ofthe Afghans again attacked and slaughtered the British mission in Kabul. In retaliation, General Roberts stormed into the capital with a vengeance that left Afghans swinging from the gallows.
Fueled by hatred of the British, an estimated 60 thousand Afghans rebelled in December But this time the 6, British defenders had breech loading rifles, Gatling guns and enough food to last through the winter.
When the shooting stopped, 3, Afghans had died to kill only 5 British. The struggle for Afghanistan continued as various factions vied for control. In JuneAyub Khan led an army of 8, toward Kandahar.
About 2, British troops moved to block them at Maiwand. Shooting gave way to ferocious hand-to-hand combat as 5, Afghans and 1, British fell. The British retreated to Kandahar; Ayub pursued to besiege them. But when Ayub heard that Roberts was coming with 10, men he abandoned the siege, fled to the hills and pleaded for peace.
His letter to Roberts claimed that, against his desire, the British had forced him to attack at Maiwand.Language in India vetconnexx.com is an open access journal. Language in India vetconnexx.com does not charge readers or their institutions for access..
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