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William Henry Smyth, a Californian engineer, is usually credited with inventing the word technocracy in to describe "the rule of the people made effective through the agency of their servants, the scientists and engineers", although the word had been used before on several occasions.
Scott proposed that money be replaced by energy certificates denominated in units such as ergs or joulesequivalent in total amount to an appropriate national net energy budget, and then distributed equally among the North American population, according to resource availability. The word technocrat can refer to someone exercising governmental authority because of their knowledge,  or "a member of a powerful technical elite", or "someone who advocates the supremacy of technical experts".
This was expressed by the belief in state ownership over the economy, with the function of the state being transformed from one of pure philosophical rule over men into a scientific administration of things and a direction of processes of production under scientific management.
Simon's vision of industrial society, a vision of pure technocracy, was a system of planning and rational order in which society would specify its needs and organize the factors of production to achieve them.
Simon, Bell comes to the conclusion that the "administration of things" by rational judgement is the hallmark of technocracy. Tectology anticipated many basic ideas of systems analysislater explored by cybernetics.
In Tectology, Bogdanov proposed to unify all social, biological, and physical sciences by considering them as systems of relationships and by seeking the organizational principles that underlie all systems. Arguably, the Platonic idea of philosopher-kings represents a sort of technocracy in which the state is run by those with specialist knowledge, in this case, knowledge of the Good, rather than scientific knowledge.
Whilst knowledge of the Good is different to knowledge of science, rulers are here appointed based on a certain grasp of technical skill, rather than democratic mandate. Characteristics[ edit ] Technocrats are individuals with technical training and occupations who perceive many important societal problems as being solvable, often while proposing technology-focused solutions.
The administrative scientist Gunnar K. Njalsson theorizes that technocrats are primarily driven by their cognitive "problem-solution mindsets" and only in part by particular occupational group interests.
Their activities and the increasing success of their ideas are thought to be a crucial factor behind the modern spread of technology and the largely ideological concept of the " information society ".
Technocrats may be distinguished from " econocrats " and " bureaucrats " whose problem-solution mindsets differ from those of the technocrats.
Minds Like Machines",  it is stated that Singapore is perhaps the best advertisement for technocracy: This was underlined in a article in "Wired" by Sandy Sandfort,  where he describes the information technology system of the island even at that early date making it effectively intelligent.
Engineering[ edit ] Following Samuel Haber,  Donald Stabile argues that engineers were faced with a conflict between physical efficiency and cost efficiency in the new corporate capitalist enterprises of the late nineteenth century United States. The profit-conscious, non-technical managers of firms where the engineers work, because of their perceptions of market demand, often impose limits on the projects that engineers desire to undertake.
The prices of all inputs vary with market forces thereby upsetting the engineer's careful calculations. As a result, the engineer loses control over projects and must continually revise plans.
To keep control over projects the engineer must attempt to exert control over these outside variables and transform them into constant factors.
Technocracy movement The American economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen was an early advocate of technocracy, and was involved in the Technical Alliance as was Howard Scott and M. King Hubbert who later developed the theory of peak oil.
Veblen believed that technological developments would eventually lead toward a socialistic organization of economic affairs. Veblen saw socialism as one intermediate phase in an ongoing evolutionary process in society that would be brought about by the natural decay of the business enterprise system and by the inventiveness of engineers.
The group argued that apolitical, rational engineers should be vested with authority to guide an economy into a thermodynamically balanced load of production and consumption, thereby doing away with unemployment and debt.
By the mids, interest in the movement was declining. Some historians have attributed the decline of the technocracy movement to the rise of Roosevelt's New Deal.Political Science Governing the Global Economy 2 the new millennium.
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